High-Dose Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuates Bone Loss with Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Prospective, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial for Bone Health in HIV-Infected Individuals
Edgar Turner Overton, MD, Ellen S. Chan, MSc, Todd T. Brown, MD, PhD, Pablo Tebas, MD, Grace A. McComsey, MD, Kathleen M. Melbourne, PharmD, Andrew Napoli, PhD, William Royce Hardin, BS, Heather J. Ribaudo, PhD, and Michael T. Yin, MD MS
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV infection from a terminal disease to a manageable chronic illness. While incidence of AIDS-defining conditions has declined, other comorbidities have increased (1), including osteoporosis and fragility fractures (2-7). Both viral and host factors likely contribute to bone loss and fracture risk: HIV infection mediated by certain viral proteins, HIV-associated inflammation, lifestyle and behavioral factors, underlying genetic predisposition, comorbidities, and ART (8-14).