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NF-κB, inflammation and metabolic disease

By | Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Inflammation

NF-κB, inflammation and metabolic disease

Rebecca G. Baker, Matthew S. Hayden, and Sankar Ghosh*
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia
University, New York, NY 10032

Metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis have been viewed historically as lipid storage disorders brought about by overnutrition. It is now widely appreciated that chronic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the initiation, propagation and development of metabolic diseases. Consistent with its central role in coordinating inflammatory responses, numerous recent studies have implicated the transcription factor NF-κB in the development of such diseases, thereby further establishing inflammation as a critical factor in their etiology and offering hope for the development of new therapeutic approaches for their treatment.

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SAC & Infectious Diseases

By | Resources, SAC

SAC Therapy and Infectious Diseases

Creating an Adverse Environment for Pathogen Survival & Simultaneously Boosting the Immune Response

SAC in a
Nutshell

SAC (Sigma Antibonding Calcium Carbonate) is the only true ionic calcium delivery system that provides calcium in a free ionic state, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body. Normally, calcium from diet and supplements enters our body in the protein-bound form and, therefore, cannot trigger the same physiological responses as SAC. Resolving calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium, SAC triggers ionic-calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases and brings natural healing reactions of our body from cellular to the systemic level.

What Are Infectious Diseases?

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They’re normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.

Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by insects or other animals. And you may get others by consuming contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may need hospitalization.

Understanding Viral Infection

Virus originates from RNAs. The ribose sugar in RNA is phosphates based and reacts in the nucleotides to form an ester bond. While not inside a cell or in the process of cell infection, the virus exists as an independent particle known as virions or virus particles. The way the virus replicates depends on the presence of phosphates in the form of copolymerization with ribose and nucleus. The virus cannot produce energy for metabolism nor synthesize protein. Hence, to replicate, the virus forms the capsid, a protective protein shell, using pre-existing proteins in an infected cell.  Knowing the mechanics and the nature of viral proliferation, SAC Therapy may hold the key for the most complete antiviral strategy. 

Using Calcium as an Antiviral Strategy by Optimizing Energy Production

The virus travels in the body via extracellular fluid for replication. Since the viral replication requires a particular environment with an adequate supply of phosphates and the surrounding temperature lower than 36 °C, the above condition should be avoided at all costs if one wants to prevent virus infection and replication. One can keep viral infection at bay by increasing the level of plasma ionized calcium, which plays a significant role in glucose metabolism and redox reaction, which raises the body temperature and deactivates active RNA from multiplying.

Calcium injection was used as a medicinal treatment for patients with the common cold in the 18th century with some success.  Such practice did not last long due to calcium’s affinity to proteins that could lead to the formation of calcium deposits in the blood vessel. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of calcium in the prevention of viral activity has always been acknowledged and recognized. With SAC Ionic Calcium Therapy, benefits of calcium is maximized without any side effects. 

Ionic Calcium Inactivates Viral RNA

SAC increases fluid ionized calcium levels in plasma, intracellular and extracellular spaces, which forms a complex with phosphates to deactivate RNA. (Figure 1)  SAC is capable of providing 1.25 x 1019 ionic calcium readily into the blood plasma and cellular matrix.  In severe viral infection cases, it is recommended to take SAC every three hours to maintain elevated ionic calcium level for continued deactivation of viral RNA.

In patient trials with HIV, maintaining adequate amount of ionic calcium helped lower the viral load to practical non-existance.  Although we have monitored the beneficial effect of SAC on HIV via case studies, we are uncertain whether HIV is completely eradicated or remains inactive due to the obnoxiously long silence period of HIV.

Figure 1. inactivation of viral RNA by ionized calcium.

Ionic Calcium Multiplies Eosinophils against Virus

Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).

Eosinophil is one type of white blood cell that is known to play a role in the immune system against infections. In parallel with the role of calcium in the prevention of viral infection via inactivation of virus RNA, eosinophils also contain RNases that are capable of degrading RNA into smaller components and thus inactivating viral infection [1]. Moreover, eosinophils attenuate viral activity through the production of nitric oxide [1]. According to a study conducted by Choi et al., when water containing 0.0012% SAC was administered for 12 weeks, rats showed significantly increased concentration of eosinophils compared to that of control rats, suggesting the beneficial effect of SAC against viral infection which could be mediated via increased eosinophil activity [2]. 

REFERENCES

  1. Drake, M.G., et al., Human and Mouse Eosinophils Have Antiviral Activity against Parainfluenza Virus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 2016. 55(3): p. 387-94.
  2. Choi, S.Y., et al., Effects of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats. Lab Anim Res, 2011. 27(4): p. 301-7.

RESEARCH: Eosinophils Interactions with Virus

“However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and promote clearance of the human pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a mouse challenge model.”

“When eosinophils were added in increasing concentration to a fixed number of viruses, dose-dependent inhibition of virus infectivity was observed

“Thus, not only is this another clear demonstration of antiviral effects of mouse eosinophils in vivo, but the first suggestion of a role for TLRs – specifically TLR7, in promoting eosinophil-mediated antiviral activity”

Immunol Res. 2009 ; 43(1-3): 128–137. doi:10.1007/s12026-008-8058-5

“Eosinophils recruited to the airways of wild-type mice after ovalbumin sensitization and challenge significantly decreased parainfluenza virus RNA in the lungs 4 days after infection compared with nonsensitized animals.”

“Eosinophil antiviral mechanisms were also explored in vitro. Isolated human eosinophils significantly reduced parainfluenza virus titers.”

Clinical Relevance

“Human and mouse eosinophils are antiviral against parainfluenza virus via the production of nitric oxide and by serving as a dead-end host for virus infection, but not through the production of eosinophil granule RNases or  eosinophil peroxidase. Eosinophils may have an underappreciated antiviral role in respiratory tract infections in humans.”

Drake, Bivins-Smith, Proskocil, et al.: Antiviral Effects of Eosinophils

RESEARCH: Increase of Eosinophils under SAC Therapy

“Hematological values of ovariectomized rat treated with SAC for 12 weeks have revealed a statistically significant increase in eosinophils in the SAC treated group after ovariectomy, although there was a big deviation (Table 4).

There were no significant changes in the blood parameters related to the hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP), hepatic energy storage and pancreatic injury (glucose), hepatic lipid metabolism (trigltcerides, total cholesterol, DHL and LDL), hepatic protein synthesis (total proteins and albumin), renal injury and electrolyte balance (BUN, calcium and phosphorus). Especially, however, ALP, a bone growth marker, increased moderately in SAC-treated animals.”

Lab Anim Res 2011: 27(4), 301-307

RESEARCH: Ca2+ Boosts the Killing Efficiency of CTL & NK Cells

“Killing pathogens by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. In one cancer study, cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca2+ concentrations has been correlated with cancer.  This study found that a rise of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations is also required for efficient CTL and NK cell function and thus for killing their targets. (cancer cells and pathogens alike) This study discusses emerging ideas and present a model how Ca2+ may be used by CTL and NK cells to optimize their killing efficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium.”

Highlights

► Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill cancer cells. ► Calcium modulates killing of cancer cells by CTL and NK cells. ► Several steps of the actual killing process are calcium dependent. ► A model is discussed how calcium influences the cancer-immune interaction.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1833 (2013) 16031611

SAC Regulate Body pH for Strengthening Immune Response and Stopping Viral Proliferation

Ideal pH is for Ideal Immune Response

Research shows that polymorphonuclear neutrophils demonstrate mainly inhibition of chemotaxis, respiratory activity, and bactericidal capacity in an acidic environment. Chemotaxis is a part of the inflammatory response, where white blood cells react to invading pathogens along a chemical concentration gradient. Extracellular pH changes influence the intracellular pH of white blood cells, which ultimately influences the process of cell death, intracellular enzyme functions, protein stability, and other molecular interactions. By having a bodily pH outside of the optimal range, we begin to see a reduction in these molecular movements of white blood cells toward the invading pathogens. Therefore, the overall immune response is weakened when an excessive extracellular pH imbalance is present.

Age, Stress, Bone Loss & Body pH

 

Age, stress, sedantary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet all contibutes early onset of osteopedia and osteoporosis.  When we start to lose the bone mass, calcium and phosphorus start to flood our system.  After calcium is used up by our cells, phosphorus reacts with water and stays in our blood as 80% hydrogen phosphate (HPO4–) and 20% dyhydrogenphosphate (H2PO4-) which acts as strong acid making our body more acidic.  This process donates more protons (H+) which further contributes to the lowering of the pH.

In acidic environment, our hemoglobin delivers mush less oxygen to the cells of our body, further contributing to lower pH and the lower pH makes our immune system far less effective, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and NK cell functions. When pathogens like virus and bacteria invade our cells, the process makes extracellular pH even more acidic by producing and excrete more H+ during the process of virus replication, suppressing our immune system to be even less effective.

Combined with stress and poor diet that also contributes to the lower pH of our body, people of modern days are powerless against infections from virulent pathogens such as SARS and MERS.  Antibiotics that may destroy the immune helping gut microbiome is not the lasting solution, either.

SAC Therpy neutralizes acids to bring our body’s pH to ideal slight alkaline level where immune response is optimized to mount attack on pathogens.

RESEARCH: Pathogen Proliferation and body pH

Virus Infection Lowers Extracellular pHe

 

“Several studies have reported that large amounts of RNA are synthesized within a short period after the influenza virus enters the cell, thereby suggesting that the rate of ATP consumption would be higher in influenza virus-infected cells than in uninfected cells (Guinea and Carrasco, Hui and Nayak). The virus-infected cells synthesize some ATP by oxidative metabolism, and some by glycolysis. Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose (C6H12O6) into pyruvate (CH3COCOO + H+). Pyruvate can be converted into lactate reversibly. High rates of glycolysis and lactate are reported as a common feature of virus-infected cells (Allison; Singh et al). This follows from the intimate association between lactate and H+ gradient across the cell plasma membrane (Allison). One obvious hypothesis is that the export of metabolic acids (lactate and CO2) and H+ from the cell into the near-surroundings will acidify the extracellular compartment. Some researchers have reported a reduction in intracellular pH (pHi) of virus-infected cells (Steinhauer et al.; Ciampor et al).”

Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1127

“The decrease in pHe near the cell membrane after virus infection should be related with two factors: the H+ produced in the cytoplasm and its release into the extracellular environment. First, high rates of glycolysis are required to produce more ATP which is necessary for large amounts of virus replications in host cell. The glycolysis will produce more metabolic acids and H+ in cytoplasm. Actually, many researches have reported that there was 0.3–0.4 unit reduction in pHi of virus-infected cells (Steinhauer et al, Ciampor et al.). The decrease in pHi of virus-infected cell is not only related with glycolysis but also the functions of M2 protein embedded in the viral lipid membrane.”

RESEARCH: Interplay between Extracellular Acidosis and Immune Cells

“Both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response appear to be finely regulated by extracellular acidosis in the range of pH values found at inflammatory sites and tumors. Low pH has been shown to delay neutrophil apoptosis, promoting their differentiation into a proangiogenic profile. Acting on monocytes and macrophages, it induces the activation of the inflammasome and the production of IL-1., while the exposure of conventional dendritic cells to low pH promotes the acquisition of a mature phenotype. Overall, these observations suggest that high concentrations of protons could be recognized by innate immune cells as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP).”

“On the other hand, by acting on T lymphocytes, low pH has been shown to suppress the cytotoxic response mediated by CD8+ T cells as well as the production of IFN-γ by TH1 cells. Interestingly, modulation of tumor microenvironment acidity has been shown to be able not only to reverse anergy in human and mouse tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes but also to improve the antitumor immune response induced by checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we provide an integrated view of the influence exerted by low pH on immune cells and discuss its implications in the immune response against infectious agents and tumor cells.”

Mediators of Inflammation, Volume 2018, Article ID 1218297, 11 pages

SAC Therapy Removes 'Building Materials' Used by Pathogens to Multiply

The way the virus replicates depends on the presence of phosphates in the form of copolymerization with ribose and nucleus. From the time we start to lose our bone mass (around age 40+), phosphorus is taken out together with calcium from our bones, providing more ‘building materials’ which pathogens can utilize to proliferate rapidly.

With SAC therapy which triggers bone bulding processes, the access phophorus along with excess calcium is sent back to bones to be deposited.  This process eliminates ‘building materials’ for pathogens and gives our body’s adaptive immune system more time to get ready and launch a massive retaliatory measure against pathogens, before viral overload and associated symptoms (including inflammatory responses by our immune system) overwhelm our immune system to our own demise.  This is a very important countermeasure often overlooked in antiviral or antibacterial strategy.

“A high school student with aplastic anemia was going through a rough patch because the only available treatment option for his condition was bone marrow transplant. However, after being introduced to SAC therapy, he fully recovered from aplastic anemia. After graduating from college, he got a job at a hospital as a phlebotomist around 2015 when there was a MERS epidemic in South Korea.

His team, who received and diagnosed MERS patients, were all quarantined due to MERS infection, except this young man. It was a mystery to all his colleagues why only he escaped MERs contraction when he was at the riskiest position of drawing the blood of MERS patients as a phlebotomist. The only difference was that he was still taking SAC at a maintenance dosage.”

A Patient Testimony from Dr. Paul K. Lee

Sample Clinical Results from HIV Patients under SAC Therapy

Patients have taken MaraGen 2-3 times a day and the viral load dropped significantly in relatively very short period of time.  CD4 count was not reported by the patients/physicians.  The study was not conducted long enough to find if SAC therapy helps our immune system to completely eradicate the virus.

SAC Therapy & Lyme Disease

Truly Debilitating Effects of Lyme Disease

 

Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders, and once infected, B. burgdorferi disseminates and causes a variety of immunological and inflammatory reactions throughout the body.

Early manifestations of infection can lead to heart complications (e.g. carditis, dizziness, palpitations), neurological disorders (e.g. Bell’s and/or cranial nerve palsy, peripheral neuropathy), and other inflammatory disorders (e.g. head and neck aches (meningitis), arthritis).

If treatment is ineffective (Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome) or if infected individuals remain undiagnosed and untreated, some symptoms can persist for months to years. These symptoms may include muscular pains, arthritis, neurological disorders, fatigue, etc.

Lyme tick and B. burgdorferi bacteria

RESEARCH:  Abstract

 

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy controls. Mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly higher in Lyme borreliosis patients as compared to healthy controls. Significantly low levels of cytosolic ionized calcium were also observed in Lyme borreliosis patients when compared to healthy controls. These results indicate that there is an imbalance of reactive oxygen species and cytosolic calcium in Lyme borreliosis patients. The results further suggest that oxidative stress and interrupted intracellular communication may ultimately contribute to a condition of mitochondrial dysfunction in the immune cells of Lyme borreliosis patients.

Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license 

Lyme Disease Causes Oxidate Stress

 

“… that by reducing mitochondrial ROS a resulting down regulation of NADPH oxidase occurred which ultimately broke the cycle causing oxidative stress in the cell….

In conclusion, our results have shown a significant rise in mitochondrial superoxide, indicative of a state of oxidative stress in the PBMCs of Lyme borreliosis patients.”

The rise of mitochondrial superoxide is closely related to excess ionic calcium storage in the cell membranes mitochondria.  SAC therapy, by restoring calcium homeostasis, regulates the buffering capacity of cellular ionic reservoirs like mitochondria and ER, restores the functions of mitochondria that is responsible for oxidate stress caused by the rise of superoxide production. 

Lyme Disease Depletes Ca2+

 

Since Lyme borreliosis is an infection that can lead to a severe inflammatory state, we assessed the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ in infected patient PBMCs compared with uninfected individuals (Table 1B). Our observations (Fig. 2) have shown a significant decrease in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ in PBMCs of Lyme borreliosis patients when compared to healthy controls.

By restoring calcium homeostasis, SAC therapy can regulate the proper intracellular concentration of ionic calcium which is essential for correct cellular responses.  Disruption of proper ionic calcium concentration wrechks havoc in all our systems.

Lyme Disease Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction

 

“These results indicate that there is an imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium in Lyme borreliosis patients. The results further suggest that oxidative stress and interrupted intracellular communication may ultimately contribute to a condition of mitochondrial dysfunction in the immune cells of Lyme borreliosis patients.”

By restoring calcium homeostasis, SAC restores proper level of intracellular calcium ion level to restore cellular communication and mitochondrial function, reducing ROS production and free radicals which causes inflammation. SAC essentially reverses the mitochondrial damage caused by Lyme Disease.

By maintaining the ideal body pH to 7.4, SAC inhibits the proliferation of B. Burgdorferi and reduces inflammation through alkalizing effect. Also, by taking excess phosphorus back to the bone, B. Burgdorferi multiplication is hampered.

Lyme Disease
Testimony

Mike Kim. 11 year-old boy, infected with Lyme disease.
Experienced fatigue, fever, migraine, muscle aches, etc.
Antibiotics, pain killers did not improve symptoms.
Has taken Margen 3x a day. All the symptoms disappeared in about 40 days. Bacterial count is negligible. Currently, living
a normal life, taking 1x daily of maintenance dosage.

A Patient Testimony from Dr. Paul K. Lee

SAC Repairs Cellular to Systemic Functions to Help our Body to Fight Infections Better

SAC is the world’s first calcium-ion-delivery-system, which safely and effectively elevates the level of calcium-ion concentration in our blood. By utilizing a very weak chemical bonding, namely sigma antibonding, to calcium carbonate molecules, Calcium & Bone Health Institute of Canada (CBHI) invented new calcium carbonate, which maintains loosely held calcium ion to its carbonate group.

Because of the weak chemical bonding of SAC, calcium ion is easily detached and passively absorbed into our system through stomach lining as ions via diffusion and osmotic pressure, not requiring digestion, vitamin D, nor peptides for absorption.  This is called passive transport. Because of our body’s natural sensitivity to fluctuations of serum plasma ionic calcium level, a minimal elevation of ionic calcium concentration achieved by SAC can trigger hormonal responses, such as the release of TSH and calcitonin to trigger bone-building osteoblasts.

SAC therapy utilizes ionic calcium as a signaling agent to trigger our body’s natural responses to increase bone turnover rate in repairing and rebuilding bones and in the due process also eliminates body-wide calcification even from overloaded cellular reservoirs.  Restored calcium homeostasis leads to restoring mitochondria functions, correcting calcium signaling, and mitigating oxidative stress.  Healthy cells to systems maintain optimal immune response and environment that protect us from the invations of pathogens.  SAC’s healing pathway from infectious disease is genuinely unique without side effects experienced in prescription drugs.

The 4 Functions of SAC Calcium for Infectious Diseases

SAC Maintains Slightly Alkaline pH

Accumulation of protons in the extracellular space is frequently associated with the course of inflammatory responses against bacteria in peripheral tissues, where pH values as low as 5.5 have been described. Low pH turns off many immune responses.

SAC provides ionic calcium for neutralizing extracellular spaces to turn on strong immune responses against pathogen.

SAC Inactivates Viral RNA Replication

The way the virus replicates depends on the presence of phosphates in the form of copolymerization with ribose and nucleus.

SAC increases fluid ionized calcium levels in plasma, intracellular and extracellular spaces, which forms a complex with phosphates and deactivates viral RNA.

SAC Strengthens Immune Responses

Killing pathogens by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance.

Raising intracellular ionic calcium concentrations optimizes killing efficiency of is cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cell as several steps of the actual killing process are calcium dependent.

SAC Removes Virus Building Materials

The way the virus replicates depends on the presence of phosphates in the form of copolymerization with ribose and nucleus.

SAC,  by triggering bone bulding process, takes access phophorus back to bones, eliminating ‘building materials’ for pathogens to multiply. This gives our body’s adaptive immune system more time to get ready and launch a massive retaliatory measure against pathogens.

Decalcification Effects of SAC Therapy

Removing Calcification from Cellular to Systemic Level is a Key to Recovery

Physiological Effects of SAC

After intake, SAC’s effect lasts about four hours in our body, initially raising the serum ionic calcium concentration to a higher yet safe level to trigger various physiological functions before bringing down the serum ionic calcium concentration down to the average physiological level.

While ionic calcium level is elevated, bone-building osteoblast with osteoclastic activity is triggered to raise the bone turnover rate, repairing and rebuilding bones. This process also activates idle protein-bound calcium, releasing both ionic calcium and protein, further fueling bone-building and clearing body-wide calcification. Ionic calcium also aids cellular metabolism, releasing more ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and raising body temperature. As kidneys try to excrete excess ionic calcium through urination, an urge to urinate within an hour of taking SAC is experienced, which is both healthy and normal, indicating that SAC is working.

STRONGER BONES LEAD TO A HEALTHIER LIFE

A long term, follow up study done in Denmark for 35,000 people revealed that the people with strong bones in their 50’s lived 11.6 years longer.
YET, in Canada, 49% of infants are born with calcium deficiency. Only 70% recover after breastfeeding. Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and infancy leads to serious health issues.

Bone Loss Leads to 150+ Degenerative Diseases

Bone health is directly related to our overall health. Emptier bone characterized by osteoporosis or osteopenia indicates not only a higher risk of fracture but also a greater chance of developing degenerative diseases. Why? Because emptying bones cause calcification in both cellular and systemic levels, causing cellular communications mayhem by disrupting calcium signaling.

Conditions Commonly Treated with SAC Therapy

Cellular Recovery Helps to Restore Mitochondrial Function & Reduce Oxidative Stress

  • Autoimmune disease (Lupus, Vitiligo, Hashimoto’s, Crohn’s, Celiac disease, eczema, MS, rheumatoid, etc.)
  • Lyme disease, HIV, Shingles and other viral infections
  • Parkinson’s, ALS, Alzheimer’s and
    other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Arthritis, Gout, CPPD, Inflammations
  • Mitochondrial Disease
  • Cancer (carcinoma, sarcoma,
    lymphoma, leukemia, multiple
    myeloma)
  • Arrhythmia, Heart palpitation, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
  • Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome
  • Thrombosis, Hemolytic Anemia
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder,
  • ADHD, Epilepsy
  • Asthma, COPD
  • Glaucoma, Cataract, Intermittent Exotropia, Retinal Vein Occlusion
  • Menier’s Disease, Aurora Migraine
    Disease, Tinnitus, Vertigo
  • Osteoporosis, Bone Necrosis
  • Chromosome 8 syndrome
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Gum disease, Loose teeth
  • Calcification (joints and tissues),
    Calcific tendonitis, Fibrosis, Kidney
    and Gall Bladder Stones
  • Dysmenorrhea, infertility

SAC & Brain Health

By | Resources, SAC

SAC Therapy and Brain Health

Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases is Linked to Disrupted Calcium Homeostasis in Brain Cells. SAC Helps to Restore It.

SAC in a
Nutshell

SAC (Sigma Antibonding Calcium Carbonate) is the only true ionic calcium delivery system that provides calcium in free ionic state, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body. Normally, calcium from diet and supplements enters our body in the protein-bound form and therefore, cannot trigger the same physiological responses as SAC. Resolving calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium, SAC triggers ionic-calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases and brings natural healing reactions of our body from cellular to the systemic level.

Is Neurodegenerative Diseases Inevitable with Age?

Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain.

Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurons normally don’t reproduce or replace themselves, so when they become damaged or die they cannot be replaced by the body. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, ALS, and Huntington’s disease.

Neurodegenerative diseases are considered incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement (called ataxias), or mental functioning (called dementias).  Today, 5 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s disease; 1 million from Parkinson’s; 400,000 from multiple sclerosis (MS); 30,000 from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease), and 30,000 from Huntington’s disease.

 

Examples of Neurodegenerative Diseases :

  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias
  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) and PD-related disorders
  • Aamyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Prion disease
  • Motor neurone diseases (MND)
  • Huntington’s disease (HD)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

Is Prescription Drugs Effective for Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Currently, no neurodegenerative disease is curable, and the treatments available only manage the symptoms or halt the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatments for this kind of disease, since the World Health Organization has predicted that neurodegenerative diseases affecting motor function will become the second-most prevalent cause of death in the next 20 years.

Since there are no effective treatments for degenerative diseases in modern society, many doctors use Western medicine to deal with the acute disorders or symptoms and use the advantages of other integrative treatments to assist Western medicine in improving the patients. Integrative medicine can, sometimes, exhibit protective effects or slow the morbidity of these diseases.

Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory

A large accumulation of calcium ion inside of mitochondrial membranes induces the over production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which causes damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins, which results in cell mutation, being the main driving force of aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. There is no plant based antioxidents we can take to neutralize all the free radicals produced by our own mitochondria. Mitochondrial damage also forces cells to undergo fermentation, which upregulates genes to support fermentation, a leading step towards cancer.

Restoring cellular calcium homeostasis, which is achieved through SAC Therapy, reduces the cause of ROS production by eliminating excess calcium ions from mitochondria and rejuvenating our cellular powerhouse.  SAC Therapy gets to the very bottom and resolves the very root cause of degenerative diseases.

Research: Perturbed Calcium Homeostasis Causes Alzheimer's Disease

“Collectively, the available data show that perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD, suggesting potential benefits of preventive and therapeutic strategies that stabilize cellular calcium homeostasis.”

Research: Ca2+ Signaling Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease

“Because of these Ca2+ signaling abnormalities, a balance in activities of Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is shifted at the synapse… As a result, synapses are weakened and eliminated in AD brains by LTD mechanism, causing memory loss. Targeting synaptic calcium signaling pathways offers opportunity for development of AD therapeutic agents.”

Ca2+ Overload in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s

Amyloid-targeting therapies to treating Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) has failed in clinical trials.  A new research finds that abnormal calcium signaling in AD neurons can cause AD pathogenesis. (Popugaeva & Bezprozvanny, 2013)

AD neurons exhibit enhanced intracellular calcium (Ca2+) liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and reduced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC) which leads to ER Ca2+ overload

Ca2+ Overload leads to Mitochondrial Defects

When Ca2+ increases, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is also increased.

Mitochondria plays a key role in intracellular Ca2+ handling.

Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by release of ROS causing oxidative stress, and apoptogenic drivers in astrocytes.

Aβ-activated astrocytes were co-cultured with neurons; and the neurons died within 24 hours unless the Aβ-induced Ca2+ oscillation was prevented which causes synaptic failure; the onset of AD pathogenesis.

Effects of Calcium Homeostasis in Neurons

Neurons are highly susceptible to changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration.  Insufficient intracellular Ca2+ content lead to abnormal functioning of neurons while excessive Ca2+ levels cause cell death.

There are observation that link Aβ42 accumulation with elevated Ca2+ levels in neuronal cytoplasm in Vivo.

It has been shown that oligomers of Aβ are able to make Ca2+ permeable channels in plasma membrane of neurons, which directly affect on intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

Research: The Role of Calcium Signaling in Parkinson's Disease

This Review discusses current evidence that implicates Ca2+ in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which Ca2+ signaling contributes to the progression of this disease will be crucial for the development of effective therapies to combat this devastating neurological condition.  An emerging, key pathological feature caused by α-synuclein aggregation is the disruption of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis.

Because Ca2+ signaling affects all aspects of neuronal cell biology, cells must tightly regulate Ca2+ levels to avoid uncontrolled responses that could otherwise lead to pathological conditions and cell death.

Research: Calcium, Mitochondria, and the Pathogenesis of ALS

“It has become obvious that the lack of understanding of the precise mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration presents a major obstacle in the development of effective therapies for ALS.

Altered calcium homeostasis and calcium signaling pathway activation is one potential mechanism that accounts for at least three major and interrelated toxic pathways: oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS.”

“These findings are in good agreement with a quantitative comparison of Ca2+ homeostasis where low cytosolic Ca2+ buffering capacity acts as an important risk factor for degeneration, and in contrast an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ buffering capacity could protect vulnerable MNs from degeneration both in-vitro and in-vivo.”

SAC Therapy, as it triggers body-wide decalcification in building bones, clears cellular calcification and restores the ionic calcium buffering capacity of ER and mitochondria.  Therefore, SAC therapy’s effects on neurodegenerative diseases are in alignment with many researches that suspects disruptions of calcium homeostasis in brain cells as the major cause.

Research: Calcium Signaling Orchestrates Glioblastoma Development

“Accumulating evidence suggests that Ca2+ might also be an important positive regulator of tumorigenesis in Gioblastoma Multiform(GBM), in processes involving quiescence, maintenance, proliferation, or migration…”

Research: Calcium Homeostasis in Multiple Sclerosis

“There are indications for disturbances in calcium homeostasis in MS patients, contribution to MS pathogenesis…. Balanced calcium homeostasis is essential for the efficient function of cells and organism.”

Examples of Cellular Calcium Signalling

“A 65-year-old male with late-stage ALS was not able to go to the toilet by himself but was able to go to the toilet alone after taking SAC calcium for 3~4 days.”

“A 53-year-old male often had swallowing difficulties due to neck muscle weakness. He was able to swallow food easily after taking SAC calcium.”

“A 65-year-old female was diagnosed with MS (multiple sclerosis). After taking SAC calcium for 1 week, she was prescribed lower dose aspirin (from 320mg to 80mg), and her circulation functions were also improved.”

Patients Testimony by Dr. Paul Lee

“An 85-year-old male (USA) was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. He would often veer to one side and often fall by losing balance. Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s disappeared and balance was restored after taking SAC calcium for two months.”

“An elderly female dementia patient (Manila) who could not remember her family members for the past three years regained her memory and recognized family after taking SAC calcium for 5 months.”

“A 19-year-old male (USA) was diagnosed with early-stage ALS. Early symptoms of ALS disappeared after taking SAC calcium for two months.”

Patients Testimony by Dr. Paul Lee

“Dear Dr. Paul Lee,

Here is an update of the patient with Parkinson’s disease. I saw him in the church today, and he was ecstatic to see me and wanted to share with me his testimonials. He started out taking three bottles of Maragen since October of 2017 without many expectations. However, after others commented that he seems to be doing much better, he was encouraged to take it faithfully through November, twice a day.

He said his tremors almost disappeared! He is 75 years old, and his Parkinson’s was not hereditary but caused by severe stress from his work. After the onset of the disease, his life quality was miserable but now lives a new life because of Maragen. Though he is not a Christian, he came to my church to share the good news with me!”

from H. Shim

A Patient Testimony by Dr. Paul Lee, 75, male, Korea

Decalcification Effects of SAC Therapy

Removing Calcification from Cellular to Systemic Level is a Key to Recovery

Physiological Effects of SAC

After intake, SAC’s effect lasts about four hours in our body, initially raising the serum ionic calcium concentration to a higher yet safe level to trigger various physiological functions before bringing down the serum ionic calcium concentration down to the average physiological level.

While ionic calcium level is elevated, bone-building osteoblast with osteoclastic activity is triggered to raise the bone turnover rate, repairing and rebuilding bones. This process also activates idle protein-bound calcium, releasing both ionic calcium and protein, further fueling bone-building and clearing body-wide calcification. Ionic calcium also aids cellular metabolism, releasing more ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and raising body temperature. As kidneys try to excrete excess ionic calcium through urination, an urge to urinate within an hour of taking SAC is experienced, which is both healthy and normal, indicating that SAC is working.

STRONGER BONES LEAD TO A HEALTHIER LIFE

A long term, follow up study done in Denmark for 35,000 people revealed that the people with strong bones in their 50’s lived 11.6 years longer.
YET, in Canada, 49% of infants are born with calcium deficiency. Only 70% recover after breastfeeding. Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and infancy leads to serious health issues.

Bone Loss Leads to 150+ Degenerative Diseases

Bone health is directly related to our overall health. Emptier bone characterized by osteoporosis or osteopenia indicates not only a higher risk of fracture but also a greater chance of developing degenerative diseases. Why? Because emptying bones cause calcification in both cellular and systemic levels, causing cellular communications mayhem by disrupting calcium signaling.

Conditions Commonly Treated with SAC Therapy

Cellular Recovery Helps to Restore Mitochondrial Function & Reduce Oxidative Stress

  • Autoimmune disease (Lupus, Vitiligo, Hashimoto’s, Crohn’s, Celiac disease, eczema, MS, rheumatoid, etc.)
  • Lyme disease, HIV, Shingles and other viral infections
  • Parkinson’s, ALS, Alzheimer’s and
    other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Arthritis, Gout, CPPD, Inflammations
  • Mitochondrial Disease
  • Cancer (carcinoma, sarcoma,
    lymphoma, leukemia, multiple
    myeloma)
  • Arrhythmia, Heart palpitation, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
  • Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome
  • Thrombosis, Hemolytic Anemia
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder,
  • ADHD, Epilepsy
  • Asthma, COPD
  • Glaucoma, Cataract, Intermittent Exotropia, Retinal Vein Occlusion
  • Menier’s Disease, Aurora Migraine
    Disease, Tinnitus, Vertigo
  • Osteoporosis, Bone Necrosis
  • Chromosome 8 syndrome
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Gum disease, Loose teeth
  • Calcification (joints and tissues),
    Calcific tendonitis, Fibrosis, Kidney
    and Gall Bladder Stones
  • Dysmenorrhea, infertility

SAC & Heart Health

By | Resources, SAC

SAC Therapy and Heart Health

Restoring Cellular Signaling of Every Heart Cells for Properly Orchestrated Organ Functions

SAC in a
Nutshell

SAC (Sigma Antibonding Calcium Carbonate) is the only true ionic calcium delivery system that provides calcium in a free ionic state, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body. Normally, calcium from diet and supplements enters our body in the protein-bound form and, therefore, cannot trigger the same physiological responses as SAC. Resolving calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium, SAC triggers ionic-calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases and brings natural healing reactions of our body from cellular to the systemic level.

Cardiovascular Disease is the #1 Killer Globally

CVD Facts from WHO

  • CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause.
  • An estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2016, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% are due to heart attack and stroke.
  • Over three quarters of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Out of the 17 million premature deaths (under the age of 70) due to noncommunicable diseases in 2015, 82% are in low- and middle-income countries, and 37% are caused by CVDs.
  • Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioural risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol using population-wide strategies.
  • People with cardiovascular disease or who are at high cardiovascular risk (due to the presence of one or more risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or already established disease) need early detection and management using counselling and medicines, as appropriate.

Types of Heart Disease

Artherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can block the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Heart attack

A heart attack occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked by a blood clot. If this clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that artery begins to die.

Heart failure

Heart failure, sometimes called congestive heart failure, means the heart isn’t pumping blood as well as it should. Heart failure does not mean that the heart stops beating — that’s a common misperception. Instead, the heart keeps working, but the body’s need for blood and oxygen isn’t being met.

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia refers to an abnormal heart rhythm. There are various types of arrhythmias. The heart can beat too slow, too fast or irregularly. Bradycardia, or a heart rate that’s too slow, is when the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Tachycardia, or a heart rate that’s too fast, refers to a heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute.

Heart valve problems

When heart valves don’t open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should, a condition called stenosis results. When the heart valves don’t close properly and thus allow blood to leak through, it’s called regurgitation. If the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber, it’s a condition called prolapse.

Types of Drugs for Heart Disease

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs): These are used to lower blood pressure for people with heart failure. They help keep your blood vessels as wide as possible so blood can flow through your body more easily. They also lessen salt and fluid buildup in your body.

Aldosterone inhibitors: These are called potassium-sparing diuretics.  They can ease the swelling and water buildup heart disease can cause. They help the kidneys send unneeded water and salt from your tissues and blood into your urine to be released.

ACE inhibitors: These widen arteries to lower your blood pressure and make it easier for your heart to pump blood.

Beta-blockers: They block the effects of adrenaline  (epinephrine). This helps your heart work better. These meds also drop production of harmful substances your body makes in response to heart failure. And they cause your heart to beat slower and with less force. Those both lower your blood pressure.

Calcium channel blockers: These treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure.  They relax blood vessels and increase blood and oxygen to your heart. That eases its workload.

They treat heart failure caused by bypertension.  But they’re used only when other medicines to lower blood pressure don’t work.

Cholesterol-lowering drugs: Inflammation may force cholesterol to build up in the walls of your arteries. That buildup increases your chance of having a heart attack or stroke.

Digoxin: It helps an injured or weakened heart to send blood through the body and work more efficiently. It strengthens the force of the heart muscle’s contractions.

Diuretics: You may know these as water pills. They help your kidneys get rid of unneeded water and salt from your tissues and bloodstream. That makes it easier for your heart to pump. They treat high blood pressure and ease swelling and water buildup caused by some medical problems, including heart failure

Inotropic therapy: This helps make an injured or weakened heart pump harder to send blood through the body. It helps strengthen the heart muscle’s contractions. It also relaxes constricted blood vessels so blood can flow more smoothly. Inotropic therapy may also speed up your heart’s rhythm.

Vasodilators: These relax your blood vessels so blood can flow more easily through your body. You’ll get these if you can’t take ACE inhibitors.

Warfarin: This helps prevent clots from forming in your blood. You’ll get it if your body is making blood clots, or if you have a condition that helps cause them.

Side Effect of Heart Drugs

Each type of coronary heart disease medication has different side effects.

Antiplatelet drugs can cause diarrhea, rash, or itching, abdominal pain, headache, chest pain, muscle aches, and dizziness.

Side effects of anticoagulants are bleeding and necrosis (gangrene) of the skin.

Side effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors include cough, elevated blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia), low blood pressure, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, weakness, abnormal taste, and rash.

Taking vasodilators may cause lightheadedness or dizziness, increased or irregular heart rate, or headache.

Side effects of calcium channel blockers include constipation, nausea, headache, rash, edema, low blood pressure, drowsiness, and dizziness.

Anti-arrhythmics may cause dizziness, blurred vision, anorexia, unusual taste, fatigue, nausea and vomiting.

Ionic Calcium Supports Healthy Mitochondrial Functions in Heart Cells

In this experiment performed by CBHI, Canada, a rat’s heart tissue was left outside in vitro to grow cold. After SAC is added to provide ionic calcium, the tissue cells’ mitochondria generated energy, and the temperature increase is indicated in the infrared pictures below. In another experiment, an extracted rat’s heart continued to pump as ionic calcium solution flowed through it.

The Role of Ionic Calcium in Heart Contraction & Relaxation Cycle

A heart uses Ca2+ to achieve a synchronized cellular depolarization and subsequent activation of contractile proteins, via the physiological mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling).

To facilitate this process, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis must be carefully regulated to ensure that depolarization and contraction occur in a synchronized time-dependent fashion during the systolic-diastolic cycle of the heart. With aging, ionic homeostasis is deregulated for most people. SAC Therapy helps to restore this crucial process in reset EC coupling to its correct state. 

SAC Therapy Switches Our Body Back to Non-Calcification Mode

From the time we start to lose our bone mass (around age 40+), our body slowly enters calcification mode where body-wide calcification happens at an accerated rate.  (When we multiply the serum concentration of calcium with phosphorus and the product is greater than 55-60 mg/dL, we are in the calcification mode.)  Below is a diagram of a sample calculation.  With SAC therapy where both calcium and phosphorus find its way back to bones, one no longer remains in calcification mode, helping our heart to recover.

Calcium Homeostasis is a Key to Healthy Heart

Cardiac Exitation-Contraction (EC) coupling refers to the coordinated cellular depolarization and movement of intracellular Ca2+ around the cell in order to bring about contraction. It is the key Ca2+ signaling process within the heart and its cellular components. Cellular calcification, which happens to everyone as we age, reduces the cell’s ability to store and regulate calcium concentrations within cytosol.

The inward Ca2+ current (ICa) through DHPR is, on its own, insufficient to bring about the required conformational change in troponin needed for contraction to occur. Additional Ca2+ is required and this is obtained from a pool of stored Ca2+ within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of the cell. The initial inward movement of Ca2+ acts as an amplification signal for the release of this stored pool of SR.  However, cellular calcification, make this process inefficient.

SAC Therapy, which triggers de-calcification effect of cells help restore the ‘definition’ of calcium signaling to helps heart cells contract properly and fully.

Pathological Cellular Ionic Calcium Overload Causes Heart Failure

“It is not surprising that a physiological mechanism such as EC coupling, which utilizes Ca2+ as a second messenger, should be implicated in both arrhythmia and heart failure pathogenesis…. Although it has been long appreciated that pathological cellular Ca2+ overload can lead to a pro-arrhythmogenic state it is only recently that a clearer understanding of the importance of defective Ca2+ signaling in arrhythmia pathogenesis” has emerged.”

Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications, 322 (2004) 1286-1309

Calcium Homeostasis & Organ Scale Heart Rhythm Disruptions

“Cardiac arrhythmia, caused by disruption of the coordinated electrical activity of heart, is among the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in United States…. Intracellular calcium dynamics in cardiac cells have been recognized as an important contributor in life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) as well as increasingly prevalent atrial arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation [AF] and flutter).”

Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology, Volume 11: 1-4

“I developed a Mitral valve prolapse heart condition that in which the two valve flaps of the mitral valve do not close smoothly or evenly, but instead bulge upward into the left atrium. I was a sprinter in my high school years but then I could not climb the stairs or run. My heart pain continued and the Richmond Cardiologist, Dr. Broumand, told me that my life stopwatch started and I was dying....

I was then introduced to Pronuvia’s scientific discoveries and innovation during the winter of 2010. On or about Spring of 2011, I tried some of the SAC Calcium products and I immediately felt the increase in my energy. Three months after taking SAC Calcium I began walking on my treadmill. Initially, I walked for 15 minutes but after 2 months I began jogging.”

E. Baragoosh, 59, Male, Canada

SAC Repairs Cellular Functions to Organ Scale Functions

SAC is the world’s first calcium-ion-delivery-system, which safely and effectively elevates the level of calcium-ion concentration in our blood. By utilizing a very weak chemical bonding, namely sigma antibonding, to calcium carbonate molecules, Calcium & Bone Health Institute of Canada (CBHI) invented new calcium carbonate, which maintains loosely held calcium ion to its carbonate group.

Because of the weak chemical bonding of SAC, calcium ion is easily detached and passively absorbed into our system through stomach lining as ions via diffusion and osmotic pressure, not requiring digestion, vitamin D, nor peptides for absorption.  This is called passive transport. Because of our body’s natural sensitivity to fluctuations of serum plasma ionic calcium level, a minimal elevation of ionic calcium concentration achieved by SAC can trigger hormonal responses, such as the release of TSH and calcitonin to trigger bone-building osteoblasts.

SAC therapy utilizes ionic calcium as a signaling agent to trigger our body’s natural responses to increase bone turnover rate in repairing and rebuilding bones and in the due process also eliminates body-wide calcification even from overloaded cellular reservoirs.  Restored calcium homeostasis leads to restoring mitochondria functions, correcting calcium signaling, and mitigating oxidative stress.  Combined with organ-scale decalcification achieved by SAC, heart muscles contract properly and correctly as EC couple signalling is corrected from the cellular level.  SAC’s healing pathway is genuinely unique without side effects experienced in prescription drugs.

The 4 Functions of SAC Calcium for Hearts

SAC Corrects Proper Signalling

EC coupling of our heart, which is responsible for precise signalling of heart muscles to contract properly at the right timing, is a concerted work of complex calcium signalling in the cellular level. As we age, cellular calcification disrupts calcium signalling which affects EC coupling of our heart.

SAC restores calcium homeostasis which helps to restore calcium signalling for heart cells function properly, repairing EC coupling deterioration.

SAC Clears Calcium Deposits

With aging, our thinning bones cause body-wide calcification, depositing stiffening calcium in the soft tissues, around joints, and even in cellular spaces.  also, stressed blood vessels around the heart tend to collect plaque which is cemented with calcium.

SAC triggers body-wide decalcification as it sends calcium and phosphorus back to the bones, significantly reducing the calcification factor, reducing and even reversing calcification, protecting and restoring our precious heart and vessels to bear the load better.

SAC Repairs Damaged Tissues

Our heart is one of the hardest working organ in our body.  Daily, the heart pumps at least 2,500 gallons and beats over 3 billion times in a person’s life.  With aging comes wear and tear of the organ.

By providing the optimum environment for our body’s own mesenchymal stem cells to proliferate and repair damaged cells, SAC helps our heartmuscle to receive the daily repair it needs.

SAC Strengthens Structural Intergrity

The cardiac skeleton consists of dense connective tissue, as collagen, that encircle the bases of the pulmonary trunk, aorta, and heart valves and providse structure and support for the heart, as well as isolate the atria from the ventricles. However, we age collagen matrix of this connective tissue is weakened, affecting the functions of heart.

Ionic calcium is one of the best signaling agents that stimulates the stem cells for the repairing and rebuilding of the collagen matrix and connective tissue, supporting structural integrity for our hearts.

Decalcification Effects of SAC Therapy

Removing Calcification from Cellular to Systemic Level is a Key to Recovery

Physiological Effects of SAC

After intake, SAC’s effect lasts about four hours in our body, initially raising the serum ionic calcium concentration to a higher yet safe level to trigger various physiological functions before bringing down the serum ionic calcium concentration down to the average physiological level.

While ionic calcium level is elevated, bone-building osteoblast with osteoclastic activity is triggered to raise the bone turnover rate, repairing and rebuilding bones. This process also activates idle protein-bound calcium, releasing both ionic calcium and protein, further fueling bone-building and clearing body-wide calcification. Ionic calcium also aids cellular metabolism, releasing more ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and raising body temperature. As kidneys try to excrete excess ionic calcium through urination, an urge to urinate within an hour of taking SAC is experienced, which is both healthy and normal, indicating that SAC is working.

STRONGER BONES LEAD TO A HEALTHIER LIFE

A long term, follow up study done in Denmark for 35,000 people revealed that the people with strong bones in their 50’s lived 11.6 years longer.
YET, in Canada, 49% of infants are born with calcium deficiency. Only 70% recover after breastfeeding. Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and infancy leads to serious health issues.

Bone Loss Leads to 150+ Degenerative Diseases

Bone health is directly related to our overall health. Emptier bone characterized by osteoporosis or osteopenia indicates not only a higher risk of fracture but also a greater chance of developing degenerative diseases. Why? Because emptying bones cause calcification in both cellular and systemic levels, causing cellular communications mayhem by disrupting calcium signaling.

Conditions Commonly Treated with SAC Therapy

Cellular Recovery Helps to Restore Mitochondrial Function & Reduce Oxidative Stress

  • Autoimmune disease (Lupus, Vitiligo, Hashimoto’s, Crohn’s, Celiac disease, eczema, MS, rheumatoid, etc.)
  • Lyme disease, HIV, Shingles and other viral infections
  • Parkinson’s, ALS, Alzheimer’s and
    other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Arthritis, Gout, CPPD, Inflammations
  • Mitochondrial Disease
  • Cancer (carcinoma, sarcoma,
    lymphoma, leukemia, multiple
    myeloma)
  • Arrhythmia, Heart palpitation, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
  • Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome
  • Thrombosis, Hemolytic Anemia
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder,
  • ADHD, Epilepsy
  • Asthma, COPD
  • Glaucoma, Cataract, Intermittent Exotropia, Retinal Vein Occlusion
  • Menier’s Disease, Aurora Migraine
    Disease, Tinnitus, Vertigo
  • Osteoporosis, Bone Necrosis
  • Chromosome 8 syndrome
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Gum disease, Loose teeth
  • Calcification (joints and tissues),
    Calcific tendonitis, Fibrosis, Kidney
    and Gall Bladder Stones
  • Dysmenorrhea, infertility

Calcium wave signaling in cancer cells

By | Cancer

Calcium wave signaling in cancer cells

JAI PARKASHa and KAMLESH ASOTRA

Ca2+ functions as an important signaling messenger right from beginning of the life to final moment of the end of the life. Ca2+ is needed at several steps of the cell cycle such as early G1, at the G1/S, and G2/M transitions. The Ca2+ signals in the form of time-dependent changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, are presented as brief spikes organized into regenerative Ca2+ waves. Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways have also been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis such as transformation of normal cells to cancerous cells, tumor formation and growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Since the global Ca2+ oscillations arise from Ca2+ waves initiated locally, it results in stochastic oscillations because although each cell has many IP3Rs and Ca2+ ions, the law of large numbers does not apply to the initiating event which is restricted to very few IP3Rs due to steep Ca2+ concentration gradients. The specific Ca2+ signaling information is likely to be encoded in a calcium code as the amplitude, duration, frequency, waveform or timing of Ca2+ oscillations and decoded again at a later stage. Since Ca2+ channels or pumps involved in regulating Ca2+ signaling pathways show altered expression in cancer, one can target these Ca2+ channels and pumps as therapeutic options to decrease proliferation of cancer cells and to promote their apoptosis. These studies can provide novel insights into alterations in Ca2+ wave patterns in carcinogenesis and lead to development of newer technologies based on Ca2+ waves for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

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SAC Therapy Dosing Protocol (Book)

By | books, SAC

SAC Therapy Dosing Protocol (Book)

Version 1 (2020), Pronuvia

Pronuvia’s SAC therapy utilizes the world’s first calcium-ion-delivery-system called Sigma Anti-Bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate (SAC-CaCO3), invented by CBHI, a research institute based in BC, Canada.

SAC therapy employs ionic calcium supplementation to successfully elevate the level of physiologically active plasma ionic calcium, triggering our body’s natural functions to build strong bones and re-establish healthy calcium homeostasis. Appropriating influx and efflux of calcium ion modifies mitochondrial functions, improves oxidative stress, and normalizes cellular calcium signaling, which is the key to treating chronic degenerative diseases.

By providing calcium in ionic form, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body, SAC therapy addresses ionic calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium supplied through diet and popular calcium supplements available in the market today.

This dosage protocol guideline provides participating physicians with suggestions on how Pronuvia’s SAC-applied products can be utilized effectively in treating communicable and degenerative diseases. By eliciting calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases, SAC therapy is recommended as a part of a more comprehensive treatment plan. Ionic calcium treatment is still evolving and is undergoing clinical evaluations by participating researchers and doctors.  Pronuvia appreciates many participating physicians for providing inputs in fine-tuning the dosage protocol.

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Introducing SAC Therapy (Book)

By | books, SAC

Introducing SAC Therapy (Book)

Pronuvia

SAC (Sigma Antibonding Calcium Carbonate) is the only true ionic calcium delivery system that provides calcium in free ionic state, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body. Normally, calcium from diet and supplements enters our body in the protein-bound form and therefore, cannot trigger the same physiological responses as SAC. Resolving calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium, SAC triggers ionic-calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases and brings natural healing reactions of our body from cellular to the systemic level.

The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the underlying technology of SAC and the principles behind the new and safe therapy based on SAC technology and to invite interested physicians to partake in our global clinical trial program for their consenting patients. SAC ionic calcium therapy is also recommended as a part of a more comprehensive treatment plan of participating physicians in treating infectious and degenerative diseases.

SAC ionic calcium therapy utilizes SAC-infused products from Pronuvia and is gaining more recognition as the therapy undergoes a decade-long clinical evaluation by participating researchers and doctors.

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SAC Calcium: For Mitochondrial Dysfunction (Video)

By | SAC | No Comments

SAC & Dental Health

By | Dental, Resources, SAC

SAC Therapy and Dental Health

SAC Stimulates Stem Cells to Repair and Rebuild Jaw Bones

SAC in a
Nutshell

SAC (Sigma Antibonding Calcium Carbonate) is the only true ionic calcium delivery system that provides calcium in free ionic state, which is the only physiologically active form of calcium in our body. Normally, calcium from diet and supplements enters our body in the protein-bound form and therefore, cannot trigger the same physiological responses as SAC. Resolving calcium deficiency better than protein-bound calcium, SAC triggers ionic-calcium-sensitive physiological responses that counteract the root cause of diseases and brings natural healing reactions of our body from cellular to the systemic level.

Edentulism -
Age Related
Jaw Bone Loss

Dental health deteriorates with aging and affects our health dramatically and is closely related to the skeletal bone loss (osteoporosis) that comes with hormonal changes and life style changes associated with aging.  As jaw bones shrink, our teeth lose its footing to stay strong.  Edentulism in the elderly population around the world is between 11% and 44%, inversely increasing to socioeconomic status.

The use of implants is considered to be one of the most popular alternatives for its high predictability, durability, and functionality to rehabilitate patients aesthetically and functionally. However, the success of the procedure depends heavily on the supporting dental bone quality. The loss of alveolar bone due to periodontitis is also a signicant concern for all age groups, as it supports not only possible implants, but also natural teeth.  Conclusively, it is the quality and the strength of jaw bones that ultimately determines the success of all  dental procedures.

Periodic increase of calcium ions in our system achieved by SAC Ionic Calcium Therapy, however, can trigger cascade of hormonal responses from pituiatary to thyroid glands that trigger and regulate both TH and PTH to raise bone mineral density (BMD) naturally without side effects. SAC delivers a safe level of calcium ions which in turn regulates bone turnover rates (absorption and resorption rates) to build healthy bones including deteriorating alveola bones of maxilla and mandible.

Age Related
Bone Loss

CAUSES OF AGE RELATED BONE LOSS:

  • Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Lower Sex Hormones
  • Lower Osteocalcin
  • Lower hGH
  • Lower Calmodulin
  • Menopause
  • Poor Absorption of Calcium

Osteoporosis Is Inevitable for Most.
It is Just a Matter of When

Bone is living, growing tissue. Throughout life, our bodies are breaking down old bone cells and rebuilding new bones in a continuous cycle (bone remodeling). This process is necessary to repair damages caused by daily stress on our bones.

When we are younger, we gain more bone than lose. However, after about age 40, this balance is typically reversed, with bone loss occurring at a much faster rate than is replaceable, leaving our bones brittle and leading to osteoporosis with increased risks of fracture, particularly of the hip, spine, wrist and shoulder.

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are types of cells the human body uses to repair broken bones. Osteoclasts break down old bone tissue allowing osteoblasts to replace it with new material. Together, these cells facilitate bone mending and bone growth. However, as we age osteoblast slows down and bone mineral density continues to decrease, making our bones more susceptible to fracture.

Osteoporosis weakens bones

Losing more than 25% of bone mass is enough for a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. In the US, 1/3 of women and 1/4 of men have the disease, with the figure increasing each year. What may be the cause of all this?  Stress, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, environmental toxins, illnesses, and hormonal change that is a part of aging process.

Stimulating hPDLCs Stem Cells for Repairing and Rebuilding

Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which reside in the perivascular space of the periodontium, possess characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and are a promising tool for periodontal regeneration by dierentiating into either cementoblasts to synthesize root cementum or osteoblasts to synthesize alveolar bone.

Many researches investigated the effects of extracellular calcium on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). In the human PDLSC line they examined, calcium treatment increased the expression of genes of bone-related molecules such as BMP-2, OCN, OPN, and RUNX2, and also resulted in mineralization. These genes are found to facilitate the periodontal ligament cells and regulated by RUNX2.

SAC releases physiologically active calcium ions to stimulate stem cells to restore the physiological function of teeth by rebuilding periodontal supporting tissues including alveolar bone, gingiva, periodontal ligaments (PDL), and the cementum.

Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which reside in the perivascular space of the periodontium, possess characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and are a promising tool for periodontal regeneration by dierentiating into either cementoblasts to synthesize root cementum or osteoblasts to synthesize alveolar bone.

Many researches investigated the effects of extracellular calcium on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). In the human PDLSC line they examined, calcium treatment increased the expression of genes of bone-related molecules such as BMP-2, OCN, OPN, and RUNX2, and also resulted in mineralization. These genes are found to facilitate the periodontal ligament cells and regulated by RUNX2.

SAC releases physiologically active calcium ions to stimulate stem cells to restore the physiological function of teeth by rebuilding periodontal supporting tissues including alveolar bone, gingiva, periodontal ligaments (PDL), and the cementum.

SAC Restores Calcium Homeostasis for Optimum Stem Cell Functions

SAC Ionic Calcium Therapy for Dentistry

Synthetic bone replacement is used to fill and restore alveolar bone, and a number of bone-lling materials containing calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (P) ions have been also used in the repair of periodontal bone defects. However, the effects that local release of Ca2+ and P ions have on biological reactions are not fully understood. To make bone graft materials work better, targeting the underlying condition of calcium and hormone imbalance is essential.  SAC delivers physiologically active calcium ions that trigger the systemic regulation of hormones and restores calcium homeostasis which revives the core metabolism.

Application of SAC for Dentistry

  • Edentulous (Bone Loss)
  • Periodontitis / Gingivitis /Gum Tissue
  • Periodontal Ligament / LooseTeeth
  • Bone Graft Assist / Implant Osseointegration

Sample Clinical Case of SAC Therapy in Dentistry

Generally lower jaw is harder to build than upper jaw bone. SAC calcium therefore promotes cementogenesis for the formation of cementum.

The x-ray images of a 58 year old Asian male who conducted molar tooth extraction show signicant dental bone growth after treating with SAC for 7 months without any co-treatments

Effects of Ionic Calcium for Dentistry

  • Helps restore and maintain your oral health
  • Creates strong jaw bones to support the teeth
  • Great for patients undergoing dental implants
  • Significantly promotes cementogenesis,the formation of cementum

Periodontal gum line recedes with age as the aveolar bone underneath is lost to edentulism.  When strong osteoblast in initiated with SAC Ionic Therapy, aveolar bone in strengthened again to support loose teeth.  Restored calcium homeostasis triggers dormant hPDLC stem cells to proliferate and repair the damaged ligaments.

“My dentist extracted my molar tooth with cavity 6 months ago. He recommended that I do an implant after bone graft. I then remembered hearing about DentiGen and told him that I would come back after increasing my jaw bone density. The dentist said that there is simply no way to increase jaw bone density and that he would eat his hat if my bone density increased. For a few months I took DentiGen faithfully and visited the dentist. He could not believe what he saw in xrays! He did not end up eating his hat but confirmed that now implant is doable due to increased jaw bone density. Wow!”

Soonok Chung – Age 47, Female

SAC Triggers Bone Repair & Rebuilding

SAC is the world’s first calcium-ion-delivery-system, which safely and effectively elevates the level of calcium-ion concentration in our blood. By utilizing a very weak chemical bonding, namely sigma antibonding, to calcium carbonate molecules, Calcium & Bone Health Institute of Canada (CBHI) invented new calcium carbonate, which maintains loosely held calcium ion to its carbonate group.

Because of the weak chemical bonding of SAC, calcium ion is easily detached and passively absorbed into our system through stomach lining as ions via diffusion and osmotic pressure, not requiring digestion, vitamin D, nor peptides for absorption.  This is called passive transport.

Because of our body’s natural sensitivity to fluctuations of serum plasma ionic calcium level, a minimal elevation of ionic calcium concentration achieved by SAC can trigger hormonal responses, such as the release of TSH and calcitonin to trigger bone-building osteoblasts. SAC therapy utilizes ionic calcium as a signaling agent to trigger our body’s natural responses to increase bone turnover rate in repairing and building healthy bones.  SAC’s healing pathway is genuinely unique without side effects experienced in prescription drugs.

The 4 Functions of SAC Calcium

SAC as Hormone Regulator

Bone metabolism is controlled by the interaction of a number of hormones.

Hormonal imbalance can wreak havoc on bone metabolism. SAC helps triggering hormones to maintain bone metabolic balance, by signaling pituitary hormones to trigger the release of thyroid and parathyroid hormones.

SAC as Calcium Navigator

Inactive calcium molecules such as protein-bound calcium do not know where to go.

SAC navigates calcium to reach its ultimate destination – the bone. SAC calcium will not be deposited in the wrong places such as the kidneys or blood vessels.

SAC as Calcium Activator

About 50% of calcium in our blood is inactive.

SAC’s ionization process activates inactive calcium molecules to be used in bone building by stimulating the secretion of thyroid hormone (TH), which is responsible for depositing minerals in our bones.

SAC as Bone Mineral Builder

Without any side effects, SAC calcium considerably aids in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, thereby reducing fracture risks by significantly improving bone mineral density.

Within a relatively shorter period of time, SAC helps to deposit other essential minerals from one’s diet into the bone along with calcium for healthier bones.

SAC Therapy Builds Bones Naturally & Effectively

Physiological Effects of SAC

After intake, SAC’s effect lasts about four hours in our body, initially raising the serum ionic calcium concentration to a higher yet safe level to trigger various physiological functions before bringing down the serum ionic calcium concentration down to the average physiological level.

While ionic calcium level is elevated, bone-building osteoblast with osteoclastic activity is triggered to raise the bone turnover rate, repairing and rebuilding bones. This process also activates idle protein-bound calcium, releasing both ionic calcium and protein, further fueling bone-building and clearing body-wide calcification. Ionic calcium also aids cellular metabolism, releasing more ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and raising body temperature. As kidneys try to excrete excess ionic calcium through urination, an urge to urinate within an hour of taking SAC is experienced, which is both healthy and normal, indicating that SAC is working.

STRONGER BONES LEAD TO A HEALTHIER LIFE

A long term, follow up study done in Denmark for 35,000 people revealed that the people with strong bones in their 50’s lived 11.6 years longer.
YET, in Canada, 49% of infants are born with calcium deficiency. Only 70% recover after breastfeeding. Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and infancy leads to serious health issues.

Bone Loss Leads to 150+ Degenerative Diseases

Bone health is directly related to our overall health. Emptier bone characterized by osteoporosis or osteopenia indicates not only a higher risk of fracture but also a greater chance of developing degenerative diseases. Why? Because emptying bones cause calcification in both cellular and systemic levels, causing cellular communications mayhem by disrupting calcium signaling.

Promising Animal Clinical Trials

Calcium ions in the blood are so vital that the body cannot permit it to fluctuate. Therefore, even a slight increase in the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood triggers the bone building process to take excess calcium into bones. Utilizing this process is by far the most effective and safe way to support strong bones since it follows the body’s natural bone building mechanism. This amazing effect of SAC was observed in this animal clinical trial through the bone break test where SAC ‘treated’ bone displayed almost 100x bone building power compared to regular calcium carbonate.

Importance of SAC therapy goes beyond the stronger bone-building.  Although most of our body’s calcium is stored in bone, the tiny amount that circulates in your bloodstream is disproportionately vital to good health. About half of this circulating serum calcium (50%) is “ionized”, which means it carries electrical charges and this calcium ions (Ca2+) are the only physiologically active form that can be recognized by our body and responsible for numerous functions of our body such as the firing of muscle and nerve cells, promoting blood clotting, preventing the depletion of bone mass, securing proper cellular functions by preserving calcium signaling, etc.  As we age, this vital ionic calcium homeostasis is disrupted as our bone breaks down and calcifies trillions of cells.  SAC therapy can restore this fragile calcium homeostasis and gives our body a chance to fight back the onset of 150+ degenerative diseases  that are thought to be caused by calcium displacement.

Osteoporosis Reversed under SAC Therapy

(Lab Anim Res 2011: 27(4), 301-307, 2011)

Group
BMD
Sham (Control)
0.2276 ± 0.011 a
OVX (Osteoporosis)
0.1965 ± 0.012 b
OVX + SAC
0.2276 ± 0.012 a
  • Control: sham operation
  • OVX: no treatment after ovariectomy
  • OVX+SAC: SAC treatment after ovariectomy.

The effects of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats are studied. The study revealed that the induced osteoporosis was completely reversed with SAC therapy. Osteocalcin, estradiol, eosinophil, CTx and BMD level were elevated with SAC, indicating that optimal bone health is indeed restored.

Values are mean ± SD for 5 rats. Means with different superscript letters are significantly different at p<0.05 by Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Before & After Bone Density Trial Results

Over 90% of Volunteers at CBHI Experienced Significant Increase in BMD

"I have taken MegaGen since I was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis with T-score of -3.7. After taking 17 bottles of Megagen, my bone density is back to the normal range. Incredible!!"

M. S. PARK – Age 55, Male

Human Bone Density Clinical Case under SAC

(CBHI Canada Conducted BMD Increase Trial for +1000 Patients under SAC Therapy.)

CBHI (Calcium & Bone Health Institute of Canada) utilized FDA approved ultrasound bone densitometer by BeamMed in measuring and comparing BMD data of more than a thousand patients.  Over 90% of the patients experienced increased bone density.

Fracture Healing Effects of SAC Therapy

Steroid Induced Osteoporosis, auto fracture (Male, 52, Indonesia)

Dosage: MaraGen 2x /day for first 2 months and then only 1x. Able to walk normally again.

Decalcification Effects of SAC Therapy

Removing Calcification from Cellular to Systemic Level is a Key to Recovery

Conditions Commonly Treated with SAC Therapy

Cellular Recovery Helps to Restore Mitochondrial Function & Reduce Oxidative Stress

  • Autoimmune disease (Lupus, Vitiligo, Hashimoto’s, Crohn’s, Celiac disease, eczema, MS, rheumatoid, etc.)
  • Lyme disease, HIV, Shingles and other viral infections
  • Parkinson’s, ALS, Alzheimer’s and
    other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Arthritis, Gout, CPPD, Inflammations
  • Mitochondrial Disease
  • Cancer (carcinoma, sarcoma,
    lymphoma, leukemia, multiple
    myeloma)
  • Arrhythmia, Heart palpitation, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
  • Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome
  • Thrombosis, Hemolytic Anemia
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder,
  • ADHD, Epilepsy
  • Asthma, COPD
  • Glaucoma, Cataract, Intermittent Exotropia, Retinal Vein Occlusion
  • Menier’s Disease, Aurora Migraine
    Disease, Tinnitus, Vertigo
  • Osteoporosis, Bone Necrosis
  • Chromosome 8 syndrome
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Gum disease, Loose teeth
  • Calcification (joints and tissues),
    Calcific tendonitis, Fibrosis, Kidney
    and Gall Bladder Stones
  • Dysmenorrhea, infertility

SAC for Calcium Signalling (Book)

By | books, SAC

SAC for Calcium Signalling

CBHI Canada

Through many academic pieces of literature, books, and media, people are well-informed that calcium is an essential mineral to maintain our bone health. As there are many calcium supplements available in the market, calcium is aggressively advertised for its positive effects on our bodies. As many pieces of research have shown, calcium plays a critical role in treating osteoporosis, which is one of the most prevalent aging-related chronic degenerative diseases. Moreover, as the demand for calcium is increasing, many medical scientists are focusing on the effects of intracellular calcium ion on our health. While cell health translates to our overall health, calcium is closely related to the mitochondrial function, which is the key to treating aging-related chronic degenerative diseases as well as cancers. Nevertheless, even though we had already established that balancing intracellular calcium ion is crucial for cell health and offers immense potency to treat the diseases that we have not yet eradicated, there were no particular calcium treatments that could directly affect the cellular calcium homeostasis.

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