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Monthly Archives

March 2018

The molecular era of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

By | Research Study

The molecular era of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

Kimberli J. Kamer1,2 and Vamsi K. Mootha2–4

Abstract | The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is an evolutionarily conserved calcium channel, and its biophysical properties and relevance to cell death, bioenergetics and signalling have been investigated for decades. However, the genes encoding this channel have only recently been discovered, opening up a new ‘molecular era’ in the study of its biology. We now know that the uniporter is not a single protein but rather a macromolecular complex consisting of pore-forming and regulatory subunits. We review recent studies that harnessed the power of molecular biology and genetics to characterize the mechanism of action of the uniporter, its evolution and its contribution to physiology and human disease.

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Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study

By | Research Study

Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study

June M Chan, Meir J Stampfer, Jing Ma, Peter H Gann, J Michael Gaziano, and Edward L Giovannucci

Background: A high calcium intake, mainly from dairy products, may increase prostate cancer risk by lowering concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], a hormone thought to protect against prostate cancer. The results of epidemiologic studies of this hypothesis are inconclusive.

Objective: We investigated the association between dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study, a cohort of male US physicians.

Design: At baseline, the men answered abbreviated dietary questionnaires. During 11 y of follow-up, we documented 1012 incident cases of prostate cancer among 20885 men. We estimated dairy calcium intake on the basis of consumption of 5 major dairy products and used logistic regression to estimate relative risk.

Results: At baseline, men who consumed >600 mg Ca/d from skim milk had lower plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations than did those consuming ≤150 mg Ca/d [71 compared with 85 pmol/L (30.06 compared with 35.64 pg/mL); P = 0.005]. Compared with men consuming ≤ 0.5 daily servings of dairy products, those consuming >2.5 servings had a multivariate relative risk of prostate cancer of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, smoking, exercise, and randomized treatment assignment in the original placebo-controlled trial. Com- pared with men consuming ≤150 mg Ca/d from dairy products, men consuming >600 mg/d had a 32% higher risk of prostate cancer (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63).
Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that dairy products and calcium are associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer.

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Vitamin D, calcium, and retinol intake, and pancreatic cancer

By | Research Study

Vitamin D, calcium, and retinol intake, and pancreatic cancer

Lydia B. Zablotska • Zhihong Gong • Furong Wang • Elizabeth A. Holly • Paige M. Bracci

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a com- plex association among intake of dietary vitamin D, cal- cium, and retinol, and pancreatic cancer risk.
Methods Pancreatic cancer cases (n = 532) diagnosed in 1995–1999 were identified using rapid case ascertainment methods and were frequency matched to population-based controls (n = 1,701) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Detailed dietary data were collected during in-person interviews using a validated semi-quantitative food- frequency questionnaire. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals.

Results: In men, increased pancreatic cancer risk was associated with currently recommended dietary vitamin D intake levels (highest (C450 IU/day) vs. lowest (\150 IU/ day) intake, OR = 2.6, trend-p = 0.009) and total vitamin D intake from diet and supplements (for \800 IU/day). ORs for dietary vitamin D intake remained increased after adjustment for intake of retinol and calcium, although confidence intervals included unity. Stratified analyses showed that ORs were higher among men with lower intake of retinol and lower physical activity but there was no evidence of statistical interaction. No associations with vitamin D intake were observed among women, although ORs typically were elevated. ORs increased with increased dietary calcium intake among men (trend-p = 0.008) and not women.

Conclusions: Our results among men showing an increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with dietary intake of vitamin D and of calcium require confirmation in further studies. Continued investigation is needed to clarify the complex role of vitamin D and calcium in pancreatic cancer risk and to determine their optimal intake level and preventive effects for pancreatic cancer.

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Calcium, Magnesium, and Colorectal Cancer

By | Research Study

Calcium, Magnesium, and Colorectal Cancer

Qi Dai1, Robert S. Sandler2, Elizabeth L. Barry3, Robert W. Summers4, Maria V. Grau5, and
John A. Baron2,5,6

High calcium consumption may confer a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.1,2 Dai and colleagues3 recently reported in a case-control study that intake of calcium may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma only when the dietary calcium:magnesium intake ratio is low. This finding provides one possible interpretation for inconsistencies in previous studies of the association of calcium intake with risk of colorectal neoplasia.4

Belonging to the same family in the periodic table, calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) share the same homeostatic control system and have the potential to antagonize each other physiologically.5 A high calcium intake reduces absorption of both magnesium and calcium,6 whereas moderate magnesium deprivation results in negative magnesium balance but increased calcium retention7. Due to the potential competition between magnesium and calcium, we hypothesized that the dietary calcium:magnesium ratio may modify the effects of calcium supplementation on colorectal carcinogenesis.

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Calcium, cancer and killing

By | Research Study

Calcium, cancer and killing: The role of calcium in killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells

Eva C. Schwarz, Bin Qu, Markus Hoth:

Killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. Cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca2+ concentrations has been correlated with cancer. A rise of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations is also required for efficient CTL and NK cell function and thus for killing their targets, in this case cancer cells. Here, we review the data on Ca2+-dependent killing of cancer cells by CTL and NK cells. In addition, we discuss emerging ideas and present a model how Ca2+ may be used by CTL and NK cells to optimize their cancer cell killing efficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium.

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Regulation of calcium signaling in lung cancer

By | Cancer

Regulation of calcium signaling in lung cancer

Haihong Yang, Qi Zhang, Jianxing He, Wenju Lu

Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the world. Calcium is a ubiquitous cellular signal, which is crucial in cancer. This re- view presents regulation of calcium signaling in lung cancer. Altered expression of specific Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-binding proteins are characterizing features of lung cancer, which regulate cell signaling pathway leading to cell proliferation or apoptosis. Chemoresistance is frequent in lung cancer. Altered endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ homeostasis of lung cancer cell is correlated with drug resistance. Hypoxia has a vital role in tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis. And Ca2+ channels are open induced by hypoxia with the increase of Ca2+ influx causing tumor growth.

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Where cancer meets calcium — p53 crosstalk with EF-hands

By | Research Study

Where cancer meets calcium — p53 crosstalk with EF-hands

Mitsuhiko Ikura and Kyoko L. Yap:

S100B, an EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein, grasps the C-terminus of the tumor suppressor p53 and inhibits protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation and acetylation of p53 in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The mode of interaction between S100B and p53 is different from the interactions seen in S100A–annexin complex structures.

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Switching p53 states by Calcium: Dynamics and Interaction of Stress Systems

By | Research Study

Effects of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

Md. Jahoor Alam,a Gurumayum Reenaroy Devi,a Ravins,a Romana Ishrat,a Subhash M. Agarwalb and R. K. Brojen Singh*a

The integration of calcium and a p53–Mdm2 oscillator model is studied using a deterministic as well as a stochastic approach, to investigate the impact of a calcium wave on single cell dynamics and on the inter-oscillator interaction. The high dose of calcium in the system activates the nitric oxide synthase, synthesizing nitric oxide which then downregulates Mdm2 and influences drastically the p53–Mdm2 network regulation, lifting the system from a normal to a stressed state. The increase in calcium level switches the system to different states, as identified by the different behaviours of the p53 temporal dynamics, i.e. oscillation death to sustain the oscillation state via a mixed state of dampened and oscillation death states. Further increase of the calcium dose in the system switches the system from sustained to oscillation death state again, while an excess of calcium shifts the cell to an apoptotic state. Another important property of the calcium ion is its ability to behave as a synchronizing agent among the interacting systems. The time evolution of the p53 dynamics of the two diffusively coupled systems at stress condition via Ca2+ shows synchronization between the two systems. The noise contained in the system interestingly helps the system to maintain its stabilized state (normal condition). However, noise has the tendency to destruct the synchronization effect, which means that it tries to restrict the system from external signals to maintain its normal condition. However, at the stress condition, the synchronization rate is found to be faster.

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SAC and Cancer Therapy

By | Resources

SAC and Cancer Therapy

Attacking Cancer In and Out

Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, it is caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide and thus multiply without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body.

Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down, and damaged cells survive when they should die and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia, generally do not form solid tumors.

Cancerous tumors are malignant and invade nearby tissues. Also, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor.

How Does Cancer Grow and Spread?

How Cancer Cells Grow Uncontrollably

Cancer cells grow out of control and become invasive because they are able to ignore signals that normally tell cells to stop dividing or begin a process known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis, which the body uses to get rid of unneeded cells.

Also, cancer cells are also often able to evade and hide from the immune system that protects the body from infections and other conditions. Tumors can also use the immune system to stay alive and grow. Moreover, cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that surround and feed a tumor—an area known as the microenvironment.

How Cancer Arises and Spreads

Each person’s cancer has a unique combination of genetic changes. As the cancer continues to grow, additional changes will occur even within the same tumor.

The genetic changes that contribute to cancer tend to affect three main types of genes – proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. All these genes are involved in normal cell growth, maintenance, and division.

Before cancer cells form in tissues of the body, the cells go through abnormal changes called hyperplasia and dysplasia. In hyperplasia, there is an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue that appear normal under a microscope. In dysplasia, the cells look abnormal under a microscope but are not cancer. Hyperplasia and dysplasia may or may not become cancer.

A cancer that has spread from the place where it first started to another place in the body is called metastatic cancer .

In metastasis, cancer cells break away from where they first formed (primary cancer), travel through the blood or lymph system, and form new tumors (metastatic tumors) in other parts of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. Metastatic tumors can cause severe damage to how the body functions, and most people who die of cancer die of metastatic disease.

Types of Cancer

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form. Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an epithelial cell or a squamous cell. Here are some categories of cancers that begin in specific types of cells:

Melanoma is cancer that begins in cells that become melanocytes, which are specialized cells that make melanin (the pigment that gives skin its color). Most melanomas form on the skin, but melanomas can also form in other pigmented tissues, such as the eye.

Sarcomas are cancers that form in bone and soft tissues, including muscle, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and fibrous tissue (such as tendons and ligaments). Osteosarcoma is the most common cancer of bone.

Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells). These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are part of the immune system. In lymphoma, abnormal lymphocytes build up in lymph nodes and lymph vessels, as well as in other organs of the body.

Carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. They are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body. There are many types of epithelial cells, which often have a column-like shape when viewed under a microscope.

Multiple myeloma is cancer that begins in plasma cells, another type of immune cell. The abnormal plasma cells, called myeloma cells, build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in bones all through the body.

Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called leukemia. These cancers do not form solid tumors. Instead, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells build up in the blood and bone marrow, crowding out normal blood cells. The low level of normal blood cells can make it harder for the body to get oxygen to its tissues, control bleeding, or fight infections.

Types of Treatment for Cancer

There are many types of conventional cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. The main types of cancer treatment include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Stem Cell Transplant
  • Precision Medicine

Radiation Therapy

At high doses, radiation kills cancer cells or slows their growth. Radiation therapy is used to either treat cancer or ease cancer symptoms.

Radiation therapy does not kill cancer cells right away. It takes days or weeks of treatment before cancer cells start to die. Then, cancer cells keep dying for weeks or months after radiation therapy ends.

There are two main types of radiation therapy, External Beam Radiation Therapy and Internal Radiation Therapy.

Internal Radiation Therapy

Internal radiation therapy is a treatment in which a source of radiation is put inside your body. The radiation source can be solid or liquid in the form of seeds, ribbons, or capsules placed in your body in or near the cancer. You receive liquid radiation through an IV line. Liquid radiation travels throughout your body, seeking out and killing cancer cells.

External Beam Radiation Therapy

External beam radiation therapy comes from a machine that aims radiation at your cancer and treats a specific part of your body.

Side Effects

Radiation not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Damage to healthy cells can cause side effects. The most common side effect of radiation therapy is fatigue, which is feeling exhausted and worn out. Fatigue can happen all at once or little by little. Healthy cells that are damaged during radiation treatment almost always recover after it is over. But sometimes people may have side effects that are severe or do not improve. Other side effects may show up months or years after radiation therapy is over. Doctors try to protect healthy cells during treatment by using as low a dose of radiation as possible, by spreading out treatment over time, and by aiming radiation at a precise part of your body.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is used to treat many types of cancer. For some people, chemotherapy may be the only treatment you receive. But most often, you will have chemotherapy and other cancer treatments. The types of treatment that you need depends on the type of cancer you have, if it has spread and where, and if you have other health problems.

When used with other treatments, chemotherapy can:

Make a tumor smaller before surgery or radiation therapy, and destroy cancer cells that may remain after treatment with surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy can also help other treatments work better.

Side Effects

Chemotherapy not only kills fast-growing cancer cells, but also kills or slows the growth of healthy cells that grow and divide quickly. Examples are cells that line your mouth and intestines and those that cause your hair to grow. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects, such as mouth sores, nausea, and hair loss. Side effects often get better or go away after you have finished chemotherapy. The most common side effect is fatigue, which is feeling exhausted and worn out.

Immunotherapy

One reason that cancer cells thrive is because they are able to hide from your immune system. Certain immunotherapies can mark cancer cells so it is easier for the immune system to find and destroy them. Other immunotherapies boost your immune system to work better against cancer.

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. The immune system is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Many different types of immunotherapy are used to treat cancer. They include:

Monoclonal Antibodies

These are drugs that are designed to bind to specific targets in the body and cause an immune response that destroys cancer cells. Other types of monoclonal antibodies can “mark” cancer cells so it is easier for the immune system to find and destroy them. These types of monoclonal antibodies may also be referred to as targeted therapy.

Adoptive Cell Transfer

This is a treatment that attempts to boost the natural ability of your T-cells to fight cancer. T-cells are a type of white blood cell and part of the immune system. Researchers isolate T-cells that are most active against your cancer from the tumor and then grow large batches of these T-cells in the lab and then inject them via a needle in your vein.

Cytokines

These are proteins that are made by your body’s cells. They play important roles in the body’s normal immune responses and also in the immune system’s ability to respond to cancer.

Treatment Vaccines

These work against cancer by boosting your immune system’s response to cancer cells.

BCG

This is an immunotherapy that is used to treat bladder cancer. When weakened form of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis is inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, BCG causes an immune response against cancer cells.

Side Effects

Immunotherapy can cause side effects. The side effects you may have depend on the type of immunotherapy you receive and how your body reacts to it. The most common side effects are skin reactions at the needle site. These side effects include pain, swelling, soreness, redness, rash, fever, chills, nausea, fatigue, etc.

Ionized Calcium Therapy for Cancer

Calcium Ions Turns Apoptosis Back On

Innovative ionized calcium therapy destroys cancer cells by re-activating muted gene responsible for apoptosis or cell self-destruction. In normal cells, P53 gene triggers cell death when a cell is damaged or aging, allowing new healthy cells to replace it.

However, many cancer cells mass produce NF-kB protein which interferes with the function of P53 gene and turns off apoptosis, causing damaged cells to continue dividing and multiplying. NF-kB is produced in cytoplasm, and then translocated into the nucleus and binds to P53 gene, inhibiting its original functions.

Calcium ions, once introduced into cancer cells, inhibits NF-kB’s effect on P53 gene and therefore restores the function of self-destruction. Cancer cells have only 1% of calcium ions of healthy normal cells, linking widespread calcium deficiency in America to rise of occurrence of cancer for further studies.

In the advanced stage of cancer where P53 gene is damaged beyond repair, calcium ions block lactic acid and inhibit the inflow of glucose into the cells, causing cancer to starve to death.

Calcium ions fight cancer in many other way as well. In pancreatic cancer (90%), intestine cancer, lung cancer and thyroid cancer (50%), liver cancer (30%), and leukemia (30%), RAS inhibitor gene mutation in cancer can be found and Ca++ corrects cancer suppressor gene to normal cell.

Also, in brain tumor, intestine cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, and more, cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) is responsible for spreading cancer. Calcium ions inhibit this enzyme by making body fluid alkaline. After all, calcium is our body’s natural acid buffer.

Dietary acids affect your body’s buffering capability, which may cause a calcium loss from your bones to counteract the acidity. Acidosis is caused by kidney disease, dehydration, alcohol, high dietary protein and other health problems. Increased cancer risk is also associated with dietary lifestyles that alter systemic acid-base balance over time and lead to a sub-clinical or low-grade state of metabolic acidosis. The relationship between diet and cancer risk prompts questions about the role of acidosis in the initiation and progression of cancer. SAC counteracts acidosis.

Cell Alkaline Theory

In battling cancer, it is important to eliminate the environment that first caused or nurtured cancer cells. Studies have shown that blood oxygen level of patients with cancer is much lower than that of healthy people. Also, a Nobel prize winner (Otto Warburg, 1883-1970) found that depriving a cell 35% of its oxygen for 48 hours made it cancerous.

There is close relationship between lack of both oxygen and calcium in cancer cells because calcium is responsible for delivering oxygen to intercellular space. Therefore, lack of calcium in cancer cells leads to lack of oxygen which leads to highly acidic environment which cancer favors.

Cancer cells are highly acidic, having pH level of about 4.5. Having enough glucose and not enough oxygen to metabolize it, glucose in cancer cells accumulates as lactic acid through anaerobic glycolysis, also known as fermentation, making cancer cells highly acidic.

Lactic acid produced provides cancer with ideal thriving environment in which to grow and to spread. By making intercellular space reach ideal pH by calcium ions, more influx of oxygen with calcium ions will eliminate cancer-thriving environment.

What do I expect from SAC treatment?

SAC rebuilds underlying health while liberating from many symptoms

Diagnosed with disease

Reliable studies link many major degenerative diseases to calcium deficiency. Yet, most people are calcium deficient due to lifestyle and diet.

Calcium deficiency may be the single most underlying condition that makes us susceptible to hypertension, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, spinal stenosis, bone spurs, insomnia, kidney stones, heart attack, stroke, etc…

6 months

Remission Induction

SAC TREATMENT – Phase I

Calcium deficiency reversed by the flow of calcium ions.

Rapid recovery from symptoms begins and maintained by influx of calcium ions. Patient feels better and symptoms may disappear, but improved condition is only maintained by influx of calcium ions. Symptoms may relapse if the influx of calcium ions stop.

6 - 12 months

Consolidation/intensification

SAC TREATMENT – Phase II & III

SAC intake must continue despite the absense of symptoms until patient’s body fully recovers to maintain his own health.

SAC serves as scaffolding until body rebuilds itself. Patient continues to feel normal but less and less dependent on SAC as his own health slowly catches up.

18+ months

SAC MAINTENANCE PROGRAM

 

Even after patient’s health is restored, maintenance dosage of SAC is recommended to combat calcium deficiency that started health issues in the first place.

Good health is maintained by healthy lifestyle and boost from SAC.

Sample Clinical Cases

SAC may trigger the increase of cancer markers: As tumors are destroyed by SAC (apoptosis and other anti-cancer effects), marker proteins are dumped into blood vessels and may reflect increased level in blood works. For cancer patients whose health is deteriorating, increasing cancer marker comes with deteriorating blood work. However, patients taking SAC will see improving blood works and feel much better, though often find increased cancer marker, not because the cancer is getting worse but because it is destroyed.

SAC may cause the increase of tumor size: Due to rapid death of cancer cells, tumors are internally filled with fluid and may look bloated and larger. This is not to be mistaken as tumor growth. Tumor density test will reveal decreased tumor density despite the increase of the size. Patients are advised to confirm with tumor density test.

Calcium Ions Assault Cancer Both Within and Without

When popular therapies focus on destroying cancer cells from outside, calcium ion therapy destroys cancer cells both within and without by restoring our body’s natural process for eliminating damaged cells and by eliminating the environment cancer favors.

Pronuvia’s new innovative SAC transport system delivers calcium ions directly into our blood vessels and carries it to every parts of our body affected by cancer, even where chemotherapy has difficulty reaching.

Pronuvia’s SAC Calcium
has passive transport movement and moves calcium ions to blood through linings of our digestive system. Calcium ions are the only physiologically active calcium that reacts with genes, stem cells, hormones, and enzymes, etc.

Regular calcium supplements have active transport movement that can only be absorbed with the help of vitamin D and peptide. Such calcium ends up as protein-bound calcium and is not physiologically active and thus not much useful.

SAC vs Calcium Supplements

By | Resources, SAC

SAC vs Calcium Supplements

Americans today are facing a serious health issue: More than 75% of Americans are calcium deficient, setting ourselves up for a major health breakdown.

The stomach needs a strongly acidic environment for calcium absorption from food or supplements. However, people over the age of 60 produce only 1/4 of the stomach acid they did when they were 20, leading to poor absorption of calcium.

Most of what is absorbed doesn’t end up in the bones, due to lack of exercise and a more sedentary life style.

Even with a plethora of calcium supplements sold in America, incidences of osteoporosis are still on the increase. Why?

There are many problems with traditional calcium supplements since their calcium absorption rates are usually too low to be of use. Sources – such as from coral, plants or algae, may vary in quality, but the problem is that absorbed calcium enters our blood vessels as inactive protein-bound calcium which our body cannot utilize directly to build up bones.

Protein calcium is only utilized after extensive exercise which most elderly Americans do not engage in. Even worse, high calcium intake in this protein-bound form develops unpleasant effects such as acid rebound and mineral imbalance, to name a few.

For these reasons, many trained medical professionals discourage the use of calcium supplements.

Building the Bone Density

Almost all your body’s calcium is stored in bone, but the tiny amount that circulates in your bloodstream is disproportionately vital to normal physiology.

About half of this circulating calcium (50%) is “ionized”, which means it carries electrical charges.

Ionized calcium (Ca2+) is the only physiologically active form that can be recognized by our body and absorbed in our bones.

Ionized calcium in the blood is so vital that the body cannot permit it to fluctuate. Therefore, even a slight increase in the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood triggers the bone-building process to take excess calcium into bones.

Utilizing this process is by far the most effective and safe way to build bone density since it follows the body’s natural bone building mechanism.*

Triggering Bone Formulation

When the calcium ion concentration rises even slightly, the thyroid gland immediately increases the secretion of calcitonin into the blood, which removes calcium from the blood plasma and deposits it as new bone.

The above process is both natural and safe, but there has simply been no way to add ionized calcium into our blood serum directly to initiate the bone formation process… until today.

The revolutionary SAC Formulation Technology has made possible what other calcium supplements and prescription drugs could not achieve. Supporting and sustaining the natural bone-building process through the flash of calcium ions.*